Pollen is used for brood rearing. Pollen patties are used to get the queen started laying earlier and rapider in the late winter and early spring, before the trees begin producing pollen.
1:1 sugar water imitates nectar and causes the queen to think there is a flow on, so she begins to lay sooner, and more. It is also used when the colony doesn't have enough honey stored to last until bloom time.
Both are used to boost a hive anytime it is weak and doesn't have enough bees to both cover the brood and have a strong field force.
Pollen patties are for ...........anytime the bees need protein. Protein is just as important in the fall than it is in the spring. Many in the past just fed in the spring, and never thought about feeding in the fall. A good site to read about proper protein, feeding, and the negative consequences is at......http://www.honeybee.com.au/Library/poll ... ition.html