Ashley Mortenson, University of Florida, focused on drone makeup in DCAs(Drone Congregation Areas). She monitored several DCAs around managed hives and also ones in that were at least 2.8 km away from the managed apiaries (considered feral). Her results were pretty striking! â€¢ According to the previous research average usurpation is between 0-30% o She found no usurpation in the managed colonies o Colonies were managed according to Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service Best Management Practices â€¢ She found 34% of the drones captured at feral sites were Africanized â€¢ Only 1% of the drones at the managed apiary site were Africanized o This appears to be significant however Queens tend to fly further than drones to mate so not 100% sure what stock the queens are mating with. there were swarm traps around both area and that information is still being analyzed. o It does appear from her data that European DCAâ€™s do, by some mechanism, keep out Africanized drones. â€¢ She also found that the Cordovan Mutation (coloration) is present in both Africanized and European drones. So color IS NOT a good indicator of Africanization as previously thought. Ashley is staying at Dr. Jamieâ€™s lab for her PhD work. She will be looking into a accurate DNA test for identifying African (and other) subspecies.