Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

Discussion in 'Bee News' started by Americasbeekeeper, Sep 6, 2012.

  1. Americasbeekeeper

    Americasbeekeeper New Member

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    Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies
    Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. CCD colonies showed moderately higher incidences of pathogens (Table 1) than non-CCD colonies. For all nine targets, the proportion of positive colonies was higher among CCD colonies than non-CCD colonies, although only DWV, KBV, and N. apis were significant at α = 0.05.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043562
     
  2. Marbees

    Marbees Member

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    Thanks AB for very informative articles, you are posting.:thumbsup: One wonders, with all the viruses/microoganisms, bees are exposed to, they are still around. :sad:
     

  3. Americasbeekeeper

    Americasbeekeeper New Member

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    Bees have survived with diseases, pests, and parasites for many years. It is beekeepers exerting our demands and throwing poisons in the hives they cannot endure. Most of the research points to fluvalinate, Coumaphos and other toxins recently introduced into the food factories we call beehives.
     
  4. PerryBee

    PerryBee New Member

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    One wonders if the regular replacement of comb will have any effect on the buildup of these chemicals? I know that most places now advocate the replacement of comb every 5 years, some even more frequently.
    "Poisons" is a strong word. Many medicine's could be considered poison, used to attack and destroy virus's, malignant cells, etc. I think that the context and circumstances in which these chemicals are being utilized should be considered. If someone is merely trying to do something they believe (rightly or wrongly) will benefit their charges, they are doing so with the best of intentions.
    One can also not dismiss the many chemicals our bees are exposed to by simply foraging.
    I have a brother that distributes many crop chemicals through his employ, and we have had debates over many of the products he promotes (Bayer). I am no big fan of much of what he does but would stop shy of saying he purposefully and willfully distributes harmful products. He truly believes this stuff is benign (despite our debates).
     
  5. Gypsi

    Gypsi Super Moderator Staff Member

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    I am afraid that the belief that stuff is benign will end up starving the human race, but we will have had it coming. For my yard, my garden and my bees, I lift the bar a bit high on research and low on chemical intervention.
     
  6. Americasbeekeeper

    Americasbeekeeper New Member

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    Comb rotation is a good thing.
    "If someone is merely trying to do something they believe (rightly or wrongly) will benefit their charges, they are doing so with the best of intentions."
    I am sure we started marketing DDT, asbestos, LSD, mercury, lead and cadmium with the best intentions.
    When I started beekeeping we would never consider introducing something into the hive that was not natural, including natural things at unnatural levels. Now beekeepers put roach bait, arsenic and most everything else into the food factory we call hives and bottle it for others to eat. One of those "poisons" is in flea and tick collars. Would you stir your soup at night with a dog collar wrapped around the spoon? Think about what you would use in the kitchen next time you use it in a hive.
    Perry there is not much we can do about foraging or family, bless their hearts.
     
  7. PerryBee

    PerryBee New Member

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    One conversation (said in front of friends :???:)

    "You would be better off drinking a glass of Roundup than drinking a glass of vinegar". I love my family, but sometimes.........................:roll:
     
  8. Americasbeekeeper

    Americasbeekeeper New Member

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    I received a letter from the author today.

    I thought this may be of interest to you and your members:

    Honey bees that succumb to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) carry a colony-specific group of three or four pathogens that tend to be unique to different geographic regions, according to a new study by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists.

    The paper, published this week in PLoSOne, is available online at: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043562.

    The most distinct difference in the makeup of the pathogen clusters was found between CCD-struck colonies in the eastern and western United States. In samples from eastern apiaries, the grouping tended to be all viruses. In the west, it was a mix of viruses and Nosema species, which are gut parasites. Specifically, Nosema apis and acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) were linked with CCD colonies from western states, while these species were extremely rare in eastern honey bee colonies regardless of the presence of CCD.

    Interestingly, collapsing colonies also differed overall from each other in the predominant pathogens, suggesting that these pathogens were lucky hitchhikers on the path to colony ruin, without any single factor being a consistent cause of collapse.

    The largest single class of pathogens found in hives with CCD was RNA viruses, which are very small viruses associated with the mitochondria of host cells.

    Each pathogen was present in some healthy colonies, but not at the levels found in CCD-struck colonies. The study confirmed an earlier finding, based on a small number of samples, that honey bee colonies showing CCD symptoms had significantly higher pathogen levels than colonies from apiaries that reported no CCD.

    An association of RNA viruses and Nosema with CCD has been previously reported after studies of a small number of colonies, but this was the largest analysis of honey bee hives yet conducted.

    The study describes genetic traits for several novel RNA viruses, and for other microbes associated with the hives that might have positive or negative effects on bee health.

    More than 100 hives from nine states—California, Florida, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Nebraska, New York, South Dakota, Wisconsin and Washington—were sampled between 2004 and 2008 and then analyzed for this study.

    The geographic differences also indicate that it is unlikely that any single recognized agent is responsible for CCD, making the search for unifying predictors more complicated, according to ARS entomologist Jay Evans at the agency’s Bee Research Laboratory in Beltsville, Md. Evans co-led the study with ARS research associate Scott Cornman, and with help from colleagues Jeff Pettis and Judy Chen at the Beltsville lab. Researchers from the University of Maryland and North Carolina State University were also part of the team, which received support from ARS and the National Honey Board.

    ARS is the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s chief intramural scientific research agency.

    SCIENTIST CONTACT: Jay Evans, Bee Research Lab, Beltsville, MD 301-504-5143, Jay.Evans@ars.usda.gov

    Sharon Durham, Science Writer
    Agricultural Research Service
    Information Staff Office