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Physiological and Behavioral Changes in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Induced by Nosema ceranae Infection
Infection with the microsporidian, Nosema apis, has been shown to advance behavioral maturation in workers. Nosema ceranae had a negative effect on lifespan (z = 3.97, n = 363, p<0.0001; Figure 1). Infection increased the daily mortality by a factor of 1.99. Survivorship was above 75% and indistinguishable between infected and control bees from 1 through 14 days of age. However, the number of surviving infected bees dropped below 50% by 16 days of age, whereas controls did not reach this level until 25 days of age. Therefore, most control bees lived, on average, 9 days longer than infected bees.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0058165
 
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