I went to a beekeeping class/small scale beekeeping conference yesterday. It was put on by our county beekeeping association. One of the discussion "activities" we had at this conference was to talk about what we understand "sustainable beekeeping" to mean. When I think of sustainable beekeeping, I think of people like Dr. John Kefuss, BeeWeaver Apiaries and others who deliberately breed bees that survive without medications or miticides, and who re-queen colonies with their own queens, raised and mated locally. It eliminates dependence on purchased queens and on chemicals, which is not only financially but also environmentally more sustainable. Also, if the bees are hardy and their survival rate is high enough that beekeepers are able to replace winter losses and make increases from the bees they already own, that seems to me more sustainable than replacing bees every year by buying packages or nucs. What do you think "sustainable beekeeping" entails?