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Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees
The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077512
 

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corbiculae = pollen basket Thank you, Google

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"Feral honey bees coat the entire inside surface of their nesting cavity in with resin
[17][FONT=arial, sans-serif], but managed honey bees deposit comparatively little resin in conventional beekeeping hive boxes"[/FONT]
[FONT=arial, sans-serif][/FONT][FONT=arial, sans-serif]Is this genetic or driven by [/FONT][FONT=arial, sans-serif]availability[/FONT][FONT=arial, sans-serif]?[/FONT]

"
propolis samples from different regions do vary in their ability to inhibit in vitro growth of the bee pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae [28]. This effect is most likely due to the diversity in specialized metabolites secreted by the resinous plants available to bees in different regions; however, it seems that propolis has a general inhibitory effect on gram-positive bacteria and fungi [29]. This should be expected as the general inhibition of microorganisms is a role resins play in plant defense [19], [30]."
[FONT=arial, sans-serif]Another contributor to CCD? How much propolis is there, in [/FONT][FONT=arial, sans-serif]the[/FONT][FONT=arial, sans-serif] Almond Deserts of California?[/FONT]
 

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There is apparently a measurable difference in the health of bee colonies which have the inside of their boxes painted with propolis. I plan on collecting some propolis next year (using propolis collecting mats), dissolving it in alcohol and painting the insides of my brood boxes with it.
 

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There is apparently a measurable difference in the health of bee colonies which have the inside of their boxes painted with propolis. I plan on collecting some propolis next year (using propolis collecting mats), dissolving it in alcohol and painting the insides of my brood boxes with it.
I plan on collecting propolis next year as well. I hope to make a tincture for using on cuts and scrapes.
 

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I have a couple of those propolis mats for collecting it but have yet to use them. Mostly I just scrape it off the steering wheel of my truck!
 

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corbiculae = pollen basket Thank you, Google

snips:
"Feral honey bees coat the entire inside surface of their nesting cavity in with resin
[17], but managed honey bees deposit comparatively little resin in conventional beekeeping hive boxes"
Is this genetic or driven by availability?
Feral colonies nesting cavities are in living trees a lot of times and the moisture content of the sound wood surrounding the colony in a tree with moisture provided by the tree sap is around 30% moisture. A lot higher than the bees like and try to reduce the moisture in their honey to. Porpoising the cavity would be a way for the bees to seal and control that high moisture. Bees kept in modern hives built from lumber that at 75 degrees and 55% relative humidity, the wood reaches equilibrium at about 8% moisture content. far less than the 17.8% moisture of honey. Bees being the thrifty insects that they are will do what is necessary to control their environment and will propolis cracks and air leaks in the modern hive and it they needed to seal the inside of the hive they would.
 

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I keep some propolis in a ziploc bag,i have those hands that the palms and fingers crack and bleed (not so much anymore). When i get a crack, i pinch a piece of propolis off and put it in my mouth to soften it, then spread it over the crack, it stops hurting instantly.:thumbsup: Before i go to bed i shake a little powdered sugar over the propolis, it keeps it from getting all over the sheets.I try not to make more work for my wife, i have enough for her to do, and she is very appreciative.:thumbsup: Jack
 

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I wonder that if you roughened the inside surface of the hive.
​Would that cause the bees to coat it with propolis?
 
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